Reference List Requirements

Reference list should include bibliographic data about all publications cited in the article, but should not include those which are not cited in the text. References are given in a single list at the end of the manuscript. Bibliographic references in the text of the article are given in square brackets. If a certain block of text is cited then its source number given in the reference list and the page of the citation should be indicated. Information is separated with comma. E.g., [10, с. 81]



The reference list should include 20 sources at least. This requirement provides that previous scientific achievements were used for research in reasonable extent.

The reference list should be performed in accordance with the journal requirements using Chicago Manual of Style format.

Minimum half of the references should be presented in one of the leading citation indexes:

- Web of Science:;

- Scopus:;

- Russian Science Citation Index:

When choosing the source it is recommended to consider its openness. It is desirable that papers were available online (including printed sources). The most accurate identification of articles in journals can be achieved if one indicates a unique identifier which is used by most foreign journals for identification of their article (Digital Object Identifier – DOI). If the article is indexed in DOI system, it is advisable to indicate its identifier in the reference list.

It is advisable that references should be relevant. The recommended quantity of contemporary references (not older than 10 years) on articles from scientific journals is 15 at least.

References to author's publications should be limited - no more than 30% in list.

Bibliographic reference structure in the Reference list


The most basic entry for a book consists of the author's name, the title of the book, publisher city, publisher name, and the year of publication.

Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Publisher City: Publisher Name, Year Published, Page Numbers.


Brown, Dan. The DaVinci Code. New York: Scholastic, 2004, pp. 45-49.

Journals, digests:

The most basic entry for a magazine consists of the author name(s), article title, and magazine name.

Last Name, First Name. Article Title. Journal Name, Year Published, Volume Number, Issue Number, Page Numbers. 


Kaplin V.V., Uglov S.R., Bulaev O.F., Goncharov V.J., Voronin A.A., Piestrup M.A. Tunable, monochromatic x rays using the internal beam of a betatron. Applied Physics Letters, 2002, vol. 80, no. 18, pp. 3427-3429.

Swaminathan V., Lepkoswka-White E., Rao B.P. Browsers or buyers in cyberspace? Journal of Computer - Mediated Communication, 1999, vol. 5, no. 2. (accessed February 7, 2011).

Online sources, registered in international DOI system, should be cited similar to printed sources with indication of its DOI without a point after it. In this case URL is not included because DOI enables precise object identification in databases, unlike with URL which can be changed.

D'Addato A.V. Secular trends in twinning rates. Journal of biosocial science, 2007, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 147–151. DOI: 10.1017/s0021932006001337

Please, pay attention that separating characters («//» и «–») in references should be avoided.